Which two types of vegetation are produced in tropical climates?
The tropical climate zones of the region produce both rain forests and the tree-dotted grasslands known as savannas. Rain forests are abundant in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Savannas are found in South America.
Vegetation Characterizing the Amazon River Basin
The Amazon River Basin is a vast biogeographical region of tropical rainforest and one of the world’s most biodiverse areas. The region’s vegetation is remarkably diverse and strikingly different to surrounding regions. Here are some of the characteristic plants that characterize the Amazon River Basin.
The Amazon is famous for its dense forests and is the largest rainforest in the world. The trees of the rainforest are considered some of the most exotic in the world and can range from up to 50-100 meters tall. Trees such as the Brazilian ebony and the Candeia Miriti, with their dark and dense wood, are all common sights in the Amazon’s vast forests.
Another distinctive feature of the Amazonian vegetation are lianas. These are woody vines that typically wrap themselves around trees, covering the canopy and turning it into a complex network of intertwined pathways. There are over 850 species of lianas in the Amazon.
Epiphytic plants are those that grow on other plants instead of in the soil, and are especially typical for the Amazon. Some examples of these plants are:
- Orchids: The Amazon is one of the most biologically diverse areas on the planet and is home to many orchid species.
- Bromeliads: This type of epiphyte is associated with trees in rainforest canopies. Some of them are carnivorous plants, such as the pitcher plant.
- Ferns: Ferns are not only common in rainforest floors but also in trees. They can sometimes form a beautiful emerald green carpet.
The Amazon basin is also known for its wetland areas, where its trees are adapted to floodplain forests. These vegetation types adapt to frequent inundations by storing some of their roots near the floodplain and having extensive root systems which help them to absorb a large amount of water quickly. Some typical trees in these types of forests are the Brazilian Piraiba and the Muirapiranga.
The Amazon River Basin is one of the most biodiverse areas on the planet, and its vegetation is an essential part of this biodiversity. From dense forests to epiphytic plants and floodplain forests, its vegetation is an essential part of the unique and breathtaking landscape that the Amazon is famous for.